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The Society of Jesus and the Eradication of Hate


Michael W. Maher

Gonzaga University, US
About Michael W.
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The reality of vendettas, and violent responses against real or supposed breaches of personal or familial honor, marked the landscape of Europe during the early modern period, from nautical expansion, which began in 1450, through the French Revolution in the 1790s. In particular, in cultures identified as Mediterranean, as described as a discrete cultural archetype by historian Fernand Braudel (1972), specific societies held codes of honor and “face,” the term used to designate a personal appearance that reflected a status of inner dignity and exterior relations. Subsequently, violent out- breaks resulted from attempts to return honor, good face, and the respective social and familial relations. As important protagonists in early modern life, the Jesuits found themselves involved in the important the effort to “save face” and to eradicate the hatred that resulted in the accusations against personal or familial honor. This study examines how members of the Society of Jesus worked toward the eradication of hatred and why this effort may be identified as an extension of the Jesuit’s fundamental identity. In order to understand why the Jesuits involved themselves in the eradication of hatred caused by retaliations, vendettas, and other violence related to saving face, this work will first explore the significance of honor in early modern Mediterranean society.

How to Cite: Maher, M.W., 2013. The Society of Jesus and the Eradication of Hate. Journal of Hate Studies, 11(1), pp.197–211. DOI:
Published on 01 Jan 2013.
Peer Reviewed


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