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Reading: Intra- and Inter-Religious Hate and Violence: A Psychosocial Model


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Intra- and Inter-Religious Hate and Violence: A Psychosocial Model


Linda M. Woolf ,

Webster University, US
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Michael R. Hulsizer

Webster University, US
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Hatred, discrimination, and violence in the name of religion are certainly not new phenomena, but rather date back through the historical record. The persecution of early Christians by the Romans and of Jews/Muslims during the Crusades are but two examples from history. Today, terrorist attacks in Israel, violence in Northern Ireland, ethnic conflict and genocide in the former Yugoslavia,and a host of other headlines remind us regularly that hatred and violence under the flag of religion still exist. However, for most individuals in the United States prior to September 11th, 2001, such violence was thought to occur primarily elsewhere on the distant horizon of international affairs. Freedom of religion and religious tolerance are viewed by most in the U.S. as fundamental tenets of our society. Furthermore, any religious hatred and intolerance that exist in the U.S. are thought to occur only on the domestic fringe and are thus not major threats to the vast majority of Americans. Consequently, the attacks of September 11, given the belief that the attacks were grounded in Islamic fundamentalism as part of a Holy War, have raised questions for many about the foundation of religious hatred and violence.

How to Cite: Woolf, L.M. and Hulsizer, M.R., 2003. Intra- and Inter-Religious Hate and Violence: A Psychosocial Model. Journal of Hate Studies, 2(1), pp.5–25. DOI:
Published on 01 Jan 2003.
Peer Reviewed


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