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Reconceptualizing Anti-LGBT Hate Crimes as Burdening Expression and Association: A Case for Expanding Federal Hate Crime Legislation to Include Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation

Author:

Jordan Blair Woods

UCLA School of Law, US; Harvard University, US; University of Cambridge, GB
About Jordan Blair

J.D. expected 2010; M.Phil. expected 2009, A.B. 2006. I would like to thank Professor Douglas NeJaime for his guidance and insightful comments on this article.

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Abstract

The purpose of this article is to bring to the attention of researchers, scholars, and politicians an important point about the harms to LGBT victims resulting from hate crimes—one that, in my view, is ignored and is critical to the justifications for allowing bias crime victims to obtain legal compensation for being victimized on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity. More specifically, this article critiques the current framing of anti-LGBT hate crimes in scholarship and empirical research and reconceptualizes these crimes as systemic inhibitors to expressive and associative opportunities on the basis of gender identity and sexual orientation (this argument will be developed in Part IV).

How to Cite: Woods, J.B., 2007. Reconceptualizing Anti-LGBT Hate Crimes as Burdening Expression and Association: A Case for Expanding Federal Hate Crime Legislation to Include Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation. Journal of Hate Studies, 6(1), p.81. DOI: http://doi.org/10.33972/jhs.49
Published on 01 Jan 2007.

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