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Following the 2016 Presidential Election: Positive and Negative Mood Affect and the Impetus Towards Activisim


Kem Gambrell ,

Gonzaga University, US
About Kem
Dr. Kem Gambrell is an Associate Professor in the Doctoral Program of Leadership Studies at Gonzaga University, Spokane, Washington. Her research interests include Social Justice, Culture, Race, Diversity and Ethnicity, and Constructive Develoopment as they relate to Leadership. She can be contacted at
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Amy Martin,

University of San Francisco, US
About Amy
Dr. Amy Martin received her doctoral degree in Leadership Studies from Gonzaga University. Her research interests include ethnicity, culture, gender in the construction of leadership and identity. Dr. Martin is a part-time instructor in the School of Management at the University of San Francisco.
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Kimberly R. Mungaray

Millikin University, US
About Kimberly
Kimberly R. Mungaray, PhD, CPA is an assistant professor of accounting at Millikin University. Kimberly holds a PhD in Leadership Studies from Gonzaga University and a MAcc from the University of North Florida. Kimberly's research interests include women and leadership in accounting and the qualitative aspects of risk assessment.
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Given the tenuousness of the U.S. presidential race and subsequent
election, it appears that more individuals are becoming politically active. What remains unclear is how the current political climate has influenced citizens regarding their perceptions of feeling psychologically safe, the related mood affect, and their impetus towards activism. Additionally, the role of social media in today’s world is seemingly a key stimulus for individuals who were typically less involved in the past become more so now. Given there may be a number of reasons that individuals feel moved to engage in discourse and action that others might view as unconventional or rebellious, the intent of this study was to investigate activism and mood affect as mediated by social media use to better understand people’s motivation for becoming more socially engaged. While historically, there have been numerous movements to address perceived societal and governmental injustices, how safe individuals feel when becoming involved is still up for debate. Findings from this study showed that individuals experienced positive and negative mood affect in both the likelihood they will engage in a variety of activist behaviors in the future, as well as seeing themselves as being politically active. Furthermore, the role of social media also showed a relationship between participant’s positive and negative mood affect, as well as sense of activism, demonstrating the impact of social media on how people express their opinions today.

How to Cite: Gambrell, K., Martin, A. and Mungaray, K.R., 2019. Following the 2016 Presidential Election: Positive and Negative Mood Affect and the Impetus Towards Activisim. Journal of Hate Studies, 14(1), pp.153–172. DOI:
Published on 27 Feb 2019.
Peer Reviewed


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